Zakrzewska; Differential diagnosis of facial pain and guidelines for management, BJA: The diagnosis and management of facial pain below the eye can be very different dependant on whether the patient visits a dentist or medical practitioner. A structure for accurate diagnosis is proposed beginning with a very careful history. The commonest acute causes of pain are dental and these are well managed by dentists. Chronic facial pain can be unilateral or bilateral and continuous or episodic. The commonest non-dental pains are temporomandibular disorders TMDs , especially musculoskeletal involving the muscles of mastication either unilaterally or bilaterally; they may be associated with other chronic pains.
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The primary bones of the face are the mandible, maxilla, frontal bone, On the anterior inferior midline region of the hemimandible body is a. The maxilla in animals is the upper fixed bone of the jaw formed from the fusion of two maxillary A maxilla fracture is often the result of facial trauma such as violence, falls or automobile accidents. Maxilla fractures are classified according to.
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Trigeminal neuralgia is extreme pain and muscle spasms in the face. Attacks of intense, electric shock-like facial pain can occur without warning or be triggered by touching specific areas of the face.
The facial artery external maxillary artery in older texts is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face. The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual artery and, sheltered by the ramus of the mandible , passes obliquely up beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles, over which it arches to enter a groove on the posterior surface of the submandibular gland. It then curves upward over the body of the mandible at the antero-inferior angle of the masseter ; passes forward and upward across the cheek to the angle of the mouth, then ascends along the side of the nose, and ends at the medial commissure of the eye, under the name of the angular artery. The facial artery is remarkably tortuous. This is to accommodate itself to neck movements such as those of the pharynx in deglutition ; and facial movements such as those of the mandible , lips , and cheeks.